12  Glossary

The following is a list of Arabic, Urdu and dialect words used in this guide and a brief definition. Where appropriate, a fuller explanation is given in the guide itself. Note that spelling in English of Arabic and Urdu words is quite arbitrary so one may find many variations, e.g. alternatives of ‘q’ and ‘k’, ‘s’ and ‘z’, use of apostrophes or hyphens for glottal stops, accents or double letters for elongated vowels, vocalised or un-vocalised word endings, the definitive article ‘al’ with or without the literal ‘l’ replaced by phonetic ‘s’, ‘d’, ‘t’, ‘r’ etc.

Darood graphic salallahu alayhi wa salaam Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him – an epithet invariably applied
in respect whenever the name or title of the Messenger of AllahDarood graphic is mentioned.
adhaan the call to prayer
ahl-al-Kitab the People of the Book - Christians and Jews
ahl-as-Sunnah the People of the Sunnah - the followers of the Prophet Muhammad Darood graphic
and his companions
akhirah the afterlife
Allah the name of God the Creator
'asr the late afternoon period, the third prayer of the day
bayaans speeches
bismillah 'With the name of Allah'
bodna, lota or shattaf vessel used to wash the private parts
burqa lady's garment to cover the body
deen the religion, the faith
dhikr remembrance (of Allah) – meditation
dhuhar the early afternoon period, the second prayer of the day
dhul-Hijjah a month of the Islamic calendar
du'ah prayer as in supplication
dupatta a lady's thin scarf
’eid feast day
’eid-gah open place set aside for performing Eid-day prayers
’Eid-ul-adha feast of the day of sacrifice
’Eid-ul-fitr feast of the ending of the fast
’esha the late evening period, the fifth prayer of the day
fajr the period before sunrise, the first prayer of the day
fatwas religious rulings in individual cases
ghusl ritual bath
hadeeth or hadith a 'tradition', i.e. a record of the sayings and actions of the Prophet Darood graphic
and his companions
hafiz, pl. hufaaz someone who has memorised the entire Qur'an recital
Haji someone who has performed the Hajj to Makkah
Hajj the pilgrimage to Makkah
halaal lawful, usually referring to permissible food
Hanafi ritual practice in accordance with the Hanafi 'school'
haraam forbidden by Islam
hijab literally a screen, used nowadays to refer to any kind of Muslim lady's scarf
hudood the Islamic penal code
’ihtikhaaf seclusion for 10 days in Ramadhaan
imaan faith, belief
imam whoever leads a congregational prayer
imamah turban
istinjah washing the private parts after toilet
ittar or attar oil-based scent
izhar sarong-like cloth
Jahannum Hell
jai-namaaz, musalaah prayer mat
jalsas religious street marches
jama’at community, congregation, party of travelling preachers
janazah funeral prayer
Jannah Paradise, the Garden
Jibreel the angel Gabriel
jihad, mujahid, mujahidah struggle
jubbah a man's long coat or shirt
juma'a the main Friday prayer
Kaabah the temple of Abraham in Makkah
kaffan cloths used to wrap corpse for burial
kafir a non-Muslim, literally an ungrateful
kameez or qamees long shirt down to the calves
khilafat Muslim leadership, literally 'representative' [of the Prophet] Darood graphic
khutbah Arabic speech forming part of Juma'a ritual
madhab system of juridical and religious practice
Madinah the city in which the Prophet Darood graphic is buried and the first Muslim community
was established
madressah (in Arabic) any school, generally a religious school
maghrieb sunset, the fourth prayer of the day
Makkah Mecca, the city in which the Prophet Darood graphic was born
masjid mosque
Masjid-al-Aqsa ‘the farthest mosque’ - the masjid next to the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
mas'lah, pl. masail a point of religious practice or a legal point
maulana, maulvi, mullah religious teacher, paid imam
mayat corpse
mehr dowry
mehrab alcove at the front of the masjid
mimbar steps making a pulpit
Mina valley outside Makkah
minar tower, light, minaret
miswak, sawaak root used for cleaning teeth
Moosa Moses
muezzin the man who makes the call to prayer
mufti a religious scholar qualified to give fatwas
Muhammad Darood graphic the Messenger of Allah, the Prophet of Allah Darood graphic
Muharram a month of the Islamic calendar
muta Shi'a temporary marriage
nabi a prophet
namaaz ritual prayers
nikkah marriage
niqaab face veil
qadi judge
qamees, kamiz, kameez long shirt down to the calves
qari reciter of Qur'an
qatila to fight, wage war
qiblah the direction towards the Kaabah in Makkah
Qur'an the revelation of Allah's Word to Muhammad Darood graphic
qurbani, udhiyah sacrificed animal
Rabi' al Awwal a month of the Islamic calendar
rakaah bowing, a unit of ritual prayer
Ramadhaan the fasting month
rasul, RasulullahDarood graphic messenger, Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah Darood graphic
risaalah the Message
roza, sawm fasting
salaah, namaaz ritual prayers
salaam peace, greeting
salwar, shalwar Pakistani-style lower garment
sawm, roza fasting
sayyadina our chief', nobleman
Shabaan a month of the Islamic calendar
shaheed a martyr
shalwar-kameez long shirt and big trousers
shari'ah Islamic law
shattaf, lota, bodna vessel used to wash the private parts
Shawwal a month of the Islamic calendar
shaykh gentleman, scholar, leader
sufism, tassawwuf Islamic mysticism and self-purification
sunnah the practice of Muhammad Darood graphic
Sunnis those who follow the practice of Muhammad Darood graphic and his companions
surah a chapter of the Qur'an
sutra a barrier in front of someone praying
ta'alaq divorce, literally 'I break off from you'
tabligh preaching to Muslims
tahajjud extra salaah in the last part of the night before the crack of dawn
takbeer pronouncement of 'Allahu akbar', Allah is Great
tarawih extra salaah in Ramadhaan
tasbeeh chaplet used for Dhikr of Allah
tassawwuf, Sufism Islamic mysticism and self-purification
taweez Qur'anic verse on paper sealed up and worn on the person
tayyamum cleaning before salaah, alternative to Wudhu when water cannot be found
udhiyah, qurbani sacrificed animal
Umrah ritual at Makkah outside of Hajj time
walimah feast to proclaim completion of a wedding
wasilah means by which Allah's power is manifested in the world
wudhu ritual washing prior to salaah
wyaz speech in the language of the congregation
yaum day
yaum-al-Ashura 10th day of Muharram
yaum-al-Jumaa Friday
yaum-ul-Arafat Day of Arafat, part of Hajj
zakaah, zakaat obligatory tax on wealth for relief of the poor